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Cells are the basic unit of life. All living things are composed of one or more cells that come from preexisting cells. Cells perform a variety of functions necessary to maintain homeostasis and life. The structure and function of a cell determines the cell’s role in an organism. Living cells are composed of chemical elements and molecules that form large, complex molecules. These molecules form the basis for the structure and function of cells.

Standard 2

Students will understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells that are made of molecules, come from preexisting cells, and perform life functions.

Objective 1

  • Describe the fundamental chemistry of living cells.
  • List the major chemical elements in cells (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur, trace elements).
  • Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).
  • Explain how the properties of water (e.g., cohesion, adhesion, heat capacity, solvent properties) contribute to maintenance of cells and living organisms.
  • Explain the role of enzymes in cell chemistry.

Objective 2

  • Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function.
  • Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic cells.
  • Illustrate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through photosynthesis (e.g., by using light energy to combine CO2 and H2O to produce oxygen and sugars) and respiration (e.g., by releasing energy from sugar and O2 to produce CO2 and H2O).
  • Measure the production of one or more of the products of either photosynthesis or respiration.

Objective 3

  • Investigate the structure and function of cells and cell parts.
  • Explain how cells divide from existing cells.
  • Describe cell theory and relate the nature of science to the development of cell theory (e.g., built upon previous knowledge, use of increasingly more sophisticated technology).
  • Describe how the transport of materials in and out of cells enables cells to maintain homeostasis (i.e., osmosis, diffusion, active transport).
  • Describe the relationship between the organelles in a cell and the functions of that cell.
  • Experiment with microorganisms and/or plants to investigate growth and reproduction.

Language science students should use: organelles, photosynthesis, respiration, cellular respiration, osmosis, diffusion, active transport, homeostasis, cell theory, organic, carbohydrate, fermentation, protein, fat, nucleic acid, enzyme, chlorophyll, cell membrane, nucleus, cell wall, solvent, solute, adhesion, cohesion, microorganism

 

Animal Cells

pg 4 (2:32) Vertebrates

pg 11 – transparency set – Negative feedback loop

pg 20 (3:48) Genetics

pg 26 (1:22) Career – Molecular Biologist

 

Genetics LB 576.5 JAC

pg 4 (2:05) cells

pg 10 – primary document – Watson Crick article

pg 10 – document – Chemical structure of DNA

pg 12 (2:08) Protein folding

pg 16 (3:11) Translation

pg 18 (5:22) Mitosis

pg 20 (5:10) Meiosis

pg 22 – primary document – Mendel’s genetis paper

pg 22 – website – (2:30) Mendel

pg 36 – website – About fossils

pg 40 – primary document – Dolly the sheep

pg 42 – document – Genetically modified foods

 

Living Organisms LB 550 TIT

pg 4 (6:41) Basics of biology

pg 6 (7:15) Basics of cells and cell theory

pg 8 – website – Cells (Khan Academy)

pg 16 (5:36) Plant transpiration

pg 22 (3:05) Bivalve basics

pg 36 (3:55) Hormones (teacher watch first)

 

Plant Cells LB 581 LOM

pg 4 (2:04) What is a plant? cartoon

pg 14 – comparing plant and animal cells

pg 18 – website – Definitions of cell processes

pg 20 (2:50) Reproduction – animated, no narration)

pg 26 (2:27) Career – Agronomist

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