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Information passed from parent to offspring is coded in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules. The fundamental DNA structure is the same for all living things; the sequence of DNA differs between each organism and each species. Changes in the DNA sequence may alter genetic expression. The genetic information in DNA provides the instructions for assembling protein molecules in cells. The code used is virtually the same for all organisms.

There are predictable patterns of inheritance. Sexual reproduction increases the genetic variation of a species. Asexual reproduction provides offspring that have the same genetic code as the parent.

Standard 4

Students will understand that genetic information coded in DNA is passed from parents to offspring by sexual and asexual reproduction. The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things. Changes in DNA may alter genetic expression.

Objective 1

  • Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
  • Explain the significance of meiosis and fertilization in genetic variation.
  • Compare the advantages/disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction to survival of species.
  • Formulate, defend, and support a perspective of a bioethical issue related to intentional or unintentional chromosomal mutations.

Objective 2

  • Predict and interpret patterns of inheritance in sexually reproducing organisms.
  • Explain Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment and their role in genetic inheritance.
  • Demonstrate possible results of recombination in sexually reproducing organisms using one or two pairs of contrasting traits in the following crosses: dominance/recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sex-linked traits.
  • Relate Mendelian principles to modern-day practice of plant and animal breeding.
  • Analyze bioethical issues and consider the role of science in determining public policy.

Objective 3

  • Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis.
  • Use a model to describe the structure of DNA.
  • Explain the importance of DNA replication in cell reproduction.
  • Summarize how genetic information encoded in DNA provides instructions for assembling protein molecules.
  • Describe how mutations may affect genetic expression and cite examples of mutagens.
  • Relate the historical events that lead to our present understanding of DNA to the cumulative nature of science knowledge and technology.
  • Research, report, and debate genetic technologies that may improve the quality of life (e.g., genetic engineering, cloning, gene splicing).

Language science students should use: DNA, replication, fertilization, dominant trait, recessive trait, genetic engineering, gene splicing, phenotype, genotype, sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, chromosome, gene, mutation, cloning, inheritance, bioethics, pedigree


Genetics LB 576.5 JAC

pg 4 (2:05) cells

pg 10 – primary document – Watson Crick article

pg 10 – document – Chemical structure of DNA

pg 12 (2:08) Protein folding

pg 16 (3:11) Translation

pg 18 (5:22) Mitosis

pg 20 (5:10) Meiosis

pg 22 – primary document – Mendel’s genetics paper

pg 22 – website – (2:30) Mendel

pg 36 – website – About fossils

pg 40 – primary document – Dolly the sheep

pg 42 – document – Genetically modified foods


Heredity LB 576.5 QUI

pg 4 (2:52) Introduction to heredity

pg 18 – website – (1:46) What are traits; (1:14) What are DNA and genes; (:59) What are proteins; (2:07) What is inheritance; (1:41) What is mutation

pg 20 (1:17) Dominant vs recessive

pg 26 (1:21) Career – Medical lab technician



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