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Earth Science Strand 4


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Standard 4

Students will understand the dynamics of the hydrosphere.

Objective 1

  • Characterize the water cycle in terms of its reservoirs, water movement among reservoirs and how water has been recycled throughout time.
  • Identify oceans, lakes, running water, frozen water, ground water, and atmospheric moisture as the reservoirs of Earth’s water cycle, and graph or chart the relative amounts of water in each.
  • Describe how the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, ground infiltration and transpiration contribute to the cycling of water through Earth’s reservoirs.
  • Model the natural purification of water as it moves through the water cycle and compare natural purification to processes used in local sewage treatment plants.

Objective 2

  • Analyze the characteristics and importance of freshwater found on Earth’s surface and its effect on living systems.
  • Investigate the properties of water: exists in all three states, dissolves many substances, exhibits adhesion and cohesion, density of solid vs. liquid water.
  • Plan and conduct an experiment to investigate biotic and abiotic factors that affect freshwater ecosystems.
  • Using data collected from local water systems, evaluate water quality and conclude how pollution can make water unavailable or unsuitable for life.
  • Research and report how communities manage water resources (e.g., distribution, shortages, quality, flood control) to address social, economic, and environmental concerns.

Objective 3

  • Analyze the physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of the oceans and the flow of energy through the oceans.
  • Research how the oceans formed from outgassing by volcanoes and ice from comets.
  • Investigate how salinity, temperature, and pressure at different depths and locations in oceans and lakes affect saltwater ecosystems.
  • Design and conduct an experiment comparing chemical properties (e.g., chemical composition, percent salinity) and physical properties (e.g., density, freezing point depression) of freshwater samples to saltwater samples from different sources.
  • Model energy flow in the physical dynamics of oceans (e.g., wave action, deep ocean tides circulation, surface currents, land and sea breezes, El Nino, upwellings).
  • Evaluate the impact of human activities (e.g., sediment, pollution, overfishing) on ocean systems.


Climate Change LB 363.73 SMI

pg 4 (4:00)  Climate Change:  Educate and take action

pg 4 – website – What is Global Warming? (NatGeo)

pg 8 – website –  2015 smashes record for hottest year

pg 10 – website – In a melting Iceland, drilling deep to stem climate change

pg 12 – website – Paleoclimatology:  the ice core record

pg 14 – website – Why doesn’t anyone know how to talk about global warming?

pg 18 (2:45)  Work together to reduce global warming

pg 22 – website – greenhouse gas emissions from livestock

pg 24 – website – collapse of the Larsen-B ice shelf

pg 28 (2:26)  fire season is hotter and longer

pg 30 – website – Climate change has claimed its first mammal extinction

pg 32 – website – history of hydropower

pg 34 (1:53)  United Nations addressing climate change

Coral Reefs

pg 4 (4:17) Why do we car about coral reefs

pg 18 (3:43) Protecting coral reefs

pg 20 (6:24) Coral reef species

Deciduous Forests LB 577.3 HUR

pg 4 (2:17) Need for forest ecosystem

pg 6 (1:50) Why leaves change color

pg 18 (1:24) Opossum

pg 20 – website – Acid Rain

Ice LB 551.3 WHE (K)

8 (1:30) Hailstorm

pg 10 – website – disappearing glaciers

pg 12 (2:10) about glaciers

pg 14 – website – Landforms from glaciers

Liquids LB 530 ROD

pg 4 (2:38) Basics of Matter

pg 12 (2:01) Why liquids flow

pg 14 (2:20) Water cycle

Matter, Energy and Heat – LB 530 TIT

pg 24 (2:42) Thermal expansion of water contributes to effects of climate change

Natural Resources LB 333.7 WIL

pg 5 (3:31)  rising temperatures  affect wheat growth

pg 8 – website – American Bison

pg 10 – website – Desalination in the Persian Gulf

pg 13 (3:37) precious metals

pg 16 – website – forest product consumption and production

?pg 18 – website – Climate Report Shifts on Biofuels

pg 20 – website – selective logging

pg 26 – website – solar industry data

pg 27 (1:26)  Volcanoes affect the amount of sunlight reaching Earth’s surface

Precipitation LB 551.48 PUR

pg 4 (2:35) Availability of fresh water

pg 4 – website – Water cycle details

pg 16 (3:20) Monsoons and their effects (human and economic)

pg 18 (3:45) Understanding weather maps

Water LB 551.48 MCC

pg 4 (2:30) Availability of fresh water

pg 8 (3:52) Water treatment

pg 12 (5:00) Modern hydroponics

Water LB 551.48 WHE

pg 4 (1:07)  How much freshwater?

pg 8 (2:40) cartoon -water bodies

pg 12 (2:39) cartoon -Earth’s water cycle

pg 10 – website – Water footprint calculator (EXCELLENT)


Water Cycle LB 551.48 PUR

pg 4 (6:25)  water cycle

pg 4 – website – Detailed water cycle for kids

pg 8 – website – Types of clouds

pg 16  (4:20) BP Oil Spill

pg 16 – website – Graphic information on BP oil spill

pg 18 (2:15)  career: forest hydrologist


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