Strand 7.2: Changes to Earth over time
Earth’s processes are dynamic and interactive, and are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among Earth’s systems. Energy from the sun and Earth’s internal heat are the main sources driving these processes. Plate tectonics is a unifying theory that explains crustal movements of Earth’s surface, how and where different rocks form, the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the distribution of fossil plants and animals.
7.2.1 Develop a model of the rock cycle to describe the relationship between energy flow and matter cycling that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Emphasize the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deposition, sedimentation, and deformation, which act together to form minerals and rocks.
7.2.2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales. Examples of processes that occur at varying time scales could include slow plate motions or rapid landslides. Examples of processes that occur at varying spatial scales could include uplift of a mountain range or deposition of fine sediments.
7.2.3 Ask questions to identify constraints of specific geologic hazards and evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining the stability of human-engineered structures such as homes, roads and bridges. Examples of geologic hazards could include earthquakes, landslides, or floods.
7.2.4 Develop and use a scale model of the matter in Earth’s interior to demonstrate how differences in density and chemical composition (silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium) cause the formation of the crust, mantle, and core.
7.2.5 Ask questions and analyze and interpret data about the patterns between plate tectonics and: 1) The occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes. 2) Continental and ocean floor features. 3) The distribution of rocks and fossils. Examples could include identifying patterns on maps of earthquakes and volcanoes relative to plate boundaries, the shapes of the continents, the locations of ocean structures (including mountains, volcanoes, faults, and trenches), and similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents.
7.2.6 Make an argument from evidence for how the geologic time scale shows the age and history of Earth. Emphasize scientific evidence from rock strata, the fossil record, and the principles of relative dating such as superposition, uniformitarianism and recognizing unconformities.
pg 4 (2:34) Carbon – what is a fossil?
pg 8 – website – Reconstructing dinosaurs
pg 12 (2:54) Rock or fossil?
pg 18 (1:58) Career – Paleontologist
pg 4 (5:30) Igneous rocks
pg 14 (3:25) Igneous rocks explained
pg 18 (5:03) make your own igneous rocks
pg 4 (3:36) “making” metamorphic rocks
pg 12 – website – (5:47) Plate tectonics video
pg 14 (3:30) Metamorphic flow chart
pg 18 (3:57) Mindbites about metamorphic rocks
pg 4 (1:35) Introduction to rock
pg 12 (3:16) Measuring the Grand Canyon
pg 18 (1:45) – Career – Geologist
pg 4 (3:50) About: suspension load
pg 6 – website – (1:47) Geological fold
pg 14 (2:13) classifying sedimentary rocks
pg 18 (1:12) demonstrating formation
pg 4 (6:22) About volcanoes (USGS)
pg 6 – website – (:20) An eruption
pg 6 – website – (1:05) Ocean eruption
pg 12 (2:28) Swimming in a oceanic rift
pg 18 (1:53) – Career – Vulcanologist