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Science 7 – Strand 2


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Science Department

7 Core    Strand 1     Strand 2     Strand 3     Strand 4     Strand 5

Strand 7.2: Changes to Earth over time

Earth’s processes are dynamic and interactive, and are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among Earth’s systems. Energy from the sun and Earth’s internal heat are the main sources driving these processes. Plate tectonics is a unifying theory that explains crustal movements of Earth’s surface, how and where different rocks form, the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the distribution of fossil plants and animals.

7.2.1  Develop a model of the rock cycle to describe the relationship between energy flow and matter cycling that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Emphasize the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deposition, sedimentation, and deformation, which act together to form minerals and rocks.

7.2.2  Construct an explanation based on evidence for how processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales. Examples of processes that occur at varying time scales could include slow plate motions or rapid landslides. Examples of processes that occur at varying spatial scales could include uplift of a mountain range or deposition of fine sediments.

7.2.3  Ask questions to identify constraints of specific geologic hazards and evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining the stability of human-engineered structures such as homes, roads and bridges. Examples of geologic hazards could include earthquakes, landslides, or floods.

7.2.4  Develop and use a scale model of the matter in Earth’s interior to demonstrate how differences in density and chemical composition (silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium) cause the formation of the crust, mantle, and core.

7.2.5 Ask questions and analyze and interpret data about the patterns between plate tectonics and: 1) The occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes. 2) Continental and ocean floor features. 3) The distribution of rocks and fossils. Examples could include identifying patterns on maps of earthquakes and volcanoes relative to plate boundaries, the shapes of the continents, the locations of ocean structures (including mountains, volcanoes, faults, and trenches), and similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents.

7.2.6  Make an argument from evidence for how the geologic time scale shows the age and history of Earth. Emphasize scientific evidence from rock strata, the fossil record, and the principles of relative dating such as superposition, uniformitarianism and recognizing unconformities.

Crystals LB 548 FRI

Pg 4  (2:51)  animation – X-ray Crystallography

Pg 10 – website – Science for Kids: Crystals

Pg 14  (2:36) animation – What is a picture element or pixel? Liquid crystals

Pg 16 – website – Royal Blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan

Pg 18  (1:14) How to make Borax Crystal Star

Pg 18 – website –  Careers in Crystallography: Exploring the Structure of Matter

Fossils LB 560 LAP

pg 4 (2:34) Carbon – what is a fossil?

pg 8 – website – Reconstructing dinosaurs

pg 12 (2:54) Rock or fossil?

pg 18 (1:58) Career – Paleontologist

Igneous Rocks LB 549 DAL

pg 4 (5:30) Igneous rocks

pg 14 (3:25) Igneous rocks explained

pg 18 (5:03) make your  own igneous rocks

Metamorphic Rocks LB 549 WIS

pg 4 (3:36) “making” metamorphic rocks

pg 12 – website – (5:47) Plate tectonics video

pg 14 (3:30) Metamorphic flow chart

pg 18 (3:57) Mindbites about metamorphic rocks

Rock Cycle LB 549 OST

pg 4 (1:35) Introduction to rock

pg 12 (3:16) Measuring the Grand Canyon

pg 18 (1:45) – Career – Geologist

Sedimentary Rocks 549 FRI

pg 4 (3:50) About: suspension load

pg 6 – website – (1:47) Geological fold

pg 14 (2:13) classifying sedimentary rocks

pg 18 (1:12) demonstrating formation

Sedimentary Rocks LB 549 FRI

pg 4 (3:50)  About sedimentary rocks: Suspension load

pg 14 (2:13) sedimentary classifying  rocks

pg 18  (1:12)

pg 6 – website – (1:47) geological fold  

Volcanoes LB 551.2 NAU

pg 4 (6:22) About volcanoes (USGS)

pg 6 – website – (:20) An eruption

pg 6 – website – (1:05) Ocean eruption

pg 12 (2:28) Swimming in a oceanic rift

pg 18 (1:53) – Career – Vulcanologist

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